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Troper (Lat. liber /libellus troparius, troparium, troperium, tropiarium, troporium, troponarius, trophonarius). A medieval book, booklet, or section of a book containing a significant number of tropes (chants introducing, and/or interpolated within, the chants of the mass proper and ordinary and sometimes of the office, such as the Benedicamus Domino). John Beleth’s liturgical commentary (Summa de ecclesiasticis officiis, ca. 1160-64) defines a troper as follows: ‘a trophonarius is a book in which are contained certain songs, which are sung with the mass introit, especially by monks, and these are called tropes and sequences, and neumae.’ Guillaume Durand (Rationale diuinorum officiorum,...

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